top of page
  • Writer's picturePeter Serefine

Eternal Counsel: George Washington's Farewell Address and the Modern State of Government

George Washington’s Farewell Address, delivered in 1796, stands as a cornerstone of American political wisdom. In his parting words to the nation, the first President of the United States offered not only a farewell but also a prophetic warning—a warning that resonates eerily with the state of our government today. It is incumbent upon us to heed the wisdom of our Founding Fathers and consider how their timeless counsel applies to the contemporary political landscape.

Washington’s Farewell Address is a treasure trove of insight, addressing issues that continue to shape our republic. From his caution against the perils of political parties to his emphasis on national unity, from his aversion to entangling foreign alliances to his call for morality and religion in public life, Washington’s words offer a roadmap for evaluating the health of our democracy.

This article embarks on a journey to compare and contrast the warnings issued by George Washington over two centuries ago with the realities of our current government. By exploring his sage advice in light of modern challenges, we can gain a deeper appreciation for the enduring relevance of his wisdom and, hopefully, find guidance in addressing the critical issues facing our nation today. As we delve into the Farewell Address, we shall find that the concerns of a Founding Father resonate with the challenges of the 21st century, illustrating the timelessness of the principles upon which this nation was built.

The Perils of Political Parties

George Washington's Farewell Address contained a stark warning about the divisive and potentially corrosive influence of political parties on the young republic. His words, though spoken more than two centuries ago, are a testament to the prescience of the Founding Fathers and their deep understanding of human nature and the dangers inherent in partisan politics.

Washington's Farewell Address states,

"However [political parties] may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government."

These words resonate with the contemporary political landscape, where the influence of political parties often overshadows the pursuit of the common good.

The warning against the domination of one faction over another, "sharpened by the spirit of revenge," is particularly relevant today. Political polarization has reached alarming levels, with deep divisions between ideological camps threatening the very fabric of our republic. Statistics highlight this polarization; studies show that the ideological gap between Democrats and Republicans has widened significantly over the past few decades, making it increasingly difficult to find common ground and pass bipartisan legislation.

The consequences of this polarization are evident in government gridlock, where partisan bickering often takes precedence over the urgent needs of the American people. Legislative stonewalling, government shutdowns, and the paralysis of critical policy decisions have become distressingly common. The Founding Fathers, through Washington's words, foresaw how such political polarization could hinder effective governance, and their concerns have been realized in our time.

Moreover, the spirit of revenge and personal attacks that Washington cautioned against has become a defining feature of modern political discourse. Negative campaigning and character assassinations have become routine tactics in elections, eroding the public's trust in the political process and its leaders. The Founding Fathers, in their wisdom, understood that such tactics would undermine the integrity of the democratic system they had labored to create.

In examining Washington's warning about political parties, we must reflect on the urgent need to reevaluate the role of parties in American politics. While political parties serve as important vehicles for representation and advocacy, their power and influence must not come at the expense of the common good. It is imperative that we heed Washington's counsel and seek ways to bridge the divides that threaten our freedom, finding common ground and prioritizing the well-being of the nation over partisan interests.

The Importance of National Unity

George Washington’s Farewell Address carried a profound message about the indispensable value of national unity. He understood that a divided nation could not withstand the test of time. His words on this matter are as relevant today as they were when he first spoke them:

”It is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national Union to your collective and individual happiness.”

Washington’s emphasis on the national Union is a direct response to the regionalism and sectionalism that threatened to tear the young nation apart in the early years of its existence. He recognized that a united nation could better withstand external pressures and internal discord, ensuring the prosperity and happiness of its citizens.

However, in the present day, national unity seems increasingly elusive. Political polarization, fueled by ideological divisions and partisan animosity, has eroded the sense of a shared national identity. This division can be seen in the deep political divides between urban and rural areas, the coasts and the heartland, and countless other fault lines that have emerged.

One poignant example of this division is the rhetoric surrounding issues like immigration and race. Debates over immigration policy have often been framed in terms of “us” versus “them,” with each side viewing the other as a threat to the nation’s identity and security. Similarly, discussions of race and identity have often deepened the divide, rather than fostering understanding and unity.

This fracturing of national unity has practical consequences. It hampers the ability of the government to address pressing issues such as healthcare, immigration reform, and climate change. In a nation where unity is compromised, achieving consensus on these critical matters becomes increasingly difficult.

Moreover, the erosion of national unity has led to a breakdown in civil discourse and respect for differing viewpoints. This threatens the very foundation of democratic governance, which relies on the ability of citizens to engage in meaningful dialogue and compromise.

George Washington’s warning about the importance of national unity is a stark reminder of the challenges we face today. As we grapple with the consequences of division, it is essential to reflect on his counsel and seek ways to bridge the gaps that separate us. The unity of our nation, as Washington wisely noted, remains of “infinite moment” for our collective well-being and happiness, and it is a goal that we must continually strive to achieve.

The Peril of Foreign Alliances

In his Farewell Address, George Washington issued a solemn warning against the entanglement of the young United States in permanent foreign alliances. He articulated a belief that a nation’s sovereignty and ability to act in its best interest could be compromised by becoming enmeshed in the complex web of international politics. Washington’s words on this matter reverberate through history, offering a stark contrast to the evolving landscape of U.S. foreign policy and alliances.

”It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.”

These words are etched into the annals of American diplomatic wisdom. They underscored Washington’s belief in the need for a cautious and deliberate approach to international relations. The Founding Father recognized the temptation of forging alliances for short-term gains but cautioned against their long-term implications. His warning was driven by a profound understanding of the dangers that permanent alliances could pose to a fledgling nation, entangling it in conflicts not of its choosing and potentially compromising its sovereignty.

Fast forward to the present day, and one cannot help but reflect on the extent to which the United States has adhered to Washington’s counsel. The landscape of international relations has evolved significantly since the 18th century, and the U.S. has entered into numerous enduring alliances and organizations, such as NATO, the United Nations, and various bilateral agreements.

These alliances have undeniably shaped American foreign policy and contributed to global stability. However, they have also raised questions about whether the nation has strayed from the path of non-entanglement that Washington advocated.

One can cite examples where the U.S.’s commitment to permanent alliances has drawn it into conflicts and entanglements that were unforeseen at the outset. The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, for instance, have demonstrated the complex consequences of entangled alliances, wherein the initial objectives became entwined with broader geopolitical interests.

Furthermore, the rise of economic and strategic competition with emerging powers like China has added new dimensions to the discussion of alliances and partnerships. The U.S. finds itself navigating a delicate balance between maintaining its existing alliances while forging new relationships to address emerging challenges.

This evolving landscape raises important questions: To what extent should the United States continue to heed Washington’s warning about permanent alliances in the 21st century? How can the nation balance its international commitments while safeguarding its sovereignty and interests? These questions demand thoughtful consideration, especially in an era where global challenges are increasingly interconnected.

George Washington’s caution against permanent foreign alliances in his Farewell Address serves as a timeless reminder of the need for vigilance in the realm of international relations. It is a call for prudence and careful consideration of the potential costs and benefits of such alliances. As we navigate a complex and interconnected world, Washington’s wisdom challenges us to strike a balance between the imperative of international cooperation and the preservation of our nation’s autonomy—a challenge as relevant today as it was during the founding of the United States.

The Importance of Morality and Religion

In George Washington’s Farewell Address, an oft-overlooked yet profoundly significant aspect of his counsel pertains to the role of morality and religion in the functioning of government. Washington argued that these elements were indispensable supports for political prosperity. He understood that a nation’s moral and ethical foundation is inextricably linked to its governance and the well-being of its citizens.

”Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness.”

These words by the Father of our Nation underscore a fundamental truth: the success of any government is contingent upon the moral fabric of its citizens. Washington recognized that without a moral compass, a society is susceptible to decay and discord. It is imperative to reflect on the state of morality and religion in contemporary America and consider their impact on our government

In the context of governance, morality encompasses principles of justice, honesty, and integrity. A government that adheres to these moral principles is more likely to earn the trust and respect of its citizens. Conversely, a lack of morality within government can erode public confidence, leading to disillusionment and cynicism.

Today, we witness debates over issues such as ethical conduct in politics, the integrity of public officials, and the transparency of government institutions. Scandals, corruption allegations, and ethical lapses continue to raise questions about the moral compass of our leaders and institutions. Washington’s warning about the importance of morality serves as a poignant reminder of the need for virtue in our political leaders and institutions.

The Role of Religion

George Washington’s reference to religion is not a call for theocracy, but rather an acknowledgment of the moral and ethical values often rooted in religious traditions. Religion, for many, provides a framework for understanding right and wrong, and it encourages individuals to act with compassion, empathy, and a sense of duty towards their fellow citizens.

In modern America, the relationship between religion and politics is a complex and often contentious one. While the First Amendment guarantees religious freedom and the separation of church and state, religion still plays a significant role in shaping the values and beliefs of many Americans. Debates over issues like the separation of church and state, religious freedom, and the influence of religious groups on policy decisions remain prominent.

Challenges and Opportunities

It is crucial to navigate these challenges by recognizing the delicate balance between upholding the principles of religious freedom and respecting the moral underpinnings of our society. The imperative is not to impose religious beliefs on others but to ensure that the moral compass of our nation remains intact.

George Washington’s wisdom regarding the importance of morality and religion in politics continues to be a beacon of guidance. To address the challenges of our time, we must reflect on the moral foundation of our government and consider how our leaders and institutions uphold the principles of justice, honesty, and integrity. In doing so, we honor the vision of our Founding Father and strive for a government that truly serves the well-being of its citizens.

The Imperative of Civic Virtue

In George Washington’s Farewell Address, he stressed not only the importance of a well-structured government but also the vital role of civic virtue in sustaining a thriving republic. His words on this matter reverberate through the ages, reminding us that the health of our government depends not solely on its structure but also on the character of its citizens and leaders.

Washington recognized that a virtuous citizenry was essential to the success of the American experiment. He understood that a nation could not endure if its people abandoned the principles of honesty, integrity, and selflessness. To this end, he issued a clarion call to promote institutions dedicated to the “general diffusion of knowledge.” In his words,

"Promote then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.”

Today, this call for a well-informed citizenry remains as relevant as ever. A healthy society relies on citizens who are not only aware of the issues but who also possess the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate policies, engage in constructive discourse, and make informed decisions at the ballot box. Unfortunately, there are concerns that this civic virtue, so prized by Washington, is under threat.

Challenges to Civic Virtue Today

  1. Media Landscape: The modern media landscape, with its proliferation of sensationalism and biased reporting, presents a challenge to informed civic engagement. Washington’s call for an enlightened public opinion can be undermined when citizens are bombarded with misinformation and sensationalism.

  2. Polarization: The toxic level of political polarization seen today often discourages constructive dialogue and compromises essential for the functioning of a democracy. Instead of engaging in thoughtful debate, citizens may retreat into echo chambers, reinforcing their preexisting beliefs.

  3. Civic Education: The quality of civic education in the United States has been a subject of concern. A well-informed citizenry requires a robust civic education system that imparts not only knowledge of government but also critical thinking skills and an understanding of the nation’s history and values.

The Way Forward

In light of these challenges, it is crucial to heed Washington’s call for the promotion of knowledge and the cultivation of civic virtue. This involves:

  1. Reforming Media: Encouraging responsible journalism and media literacy to empower citizens to discern credible sources from misinformation.

  2. Fostering Civil Discourse: Promoting an environment where constructive and respectful dialogue is encouraged, even in the face of differing opinions.

  3. Strengthening Civic Education: Reinvesting in civic education to ensure that future generations are equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to engage actively in our democratic republic.

George Washington’s plea for civic virtue reminds us that the success of our government depends not only on the design of our institutions but also on the character of our people. To honor his legacy and safeguard our democracy, we must prioritize the cultivation of civic virtue in ourselves and in our society. In doing so, we honor the timeless wisdom of a Founding Father who understood that the strength of a nation lies not only in its laws but in the virtue of its people.

The Relevance of Washington’s Wisdom

More than two centuries have passed since George Washington penned his Farewell Address, yet the wisdom contained within it remains as pertinent as ever. In this section, we delve deeper into the enduring relevance of Washington’s insights and how they continue to illuminate the path for responsible governance.

  1. Political Polarization: Washington’s forewarning about the dangers of political parties could not be timelier. He cautioned against the divisive influence of factions, stating that they could lead to “alternate domination” and a “spirit of revenge.” Today, we witness an increasingly polarized political landscape where partisanship often takes precedence over the common good. The bitter rivalries and gridlock that have come to define our politics echo Washington’s concerns.

  2. National Unity: Washington’s emphasis on national unity transcends the centuries. He urged Americans to prioritize the “national Union” for their “collective and individual happiness.” In an era marked by identity politics and regional divides, his call for unity serves as a poignant reminder that a divided nation is susceptible to external pressures and internal strife. Recent events that have strained national unity, such as protests and movements seeking secession, underscore the contemporary relevance of this warning.

  3. Foreign Entanglements: Washington’s counsel to avoid “permanent alliances” abroad resonates in an era of complex international relations. While the world has evolved since his time, the fundamental principle of safeguarding national sovereignty remains steadfast. The U.S.’s involvement in long-term military engagements and treaties is a topic of ongoing debate, echoing Washington’s caution about becoming entangled in foreign conflicts. His words invite us to scrutinize the extent of our global commitments and their impact on our national interests.

  4. Morality and Religion: Washington’s assertion that “religion and morality are indispensable supports” for political prosperity carries weight in today’s discussions on ethics and governance. Amid shifting cultural norms and declining religious affiliation, his emphasis on these foundational principles serves as a call to maintain a moral compass in our decision-making processes. The intersection of religion and politics continues to spark debate and shape policy, underlining the enduring importance of this aspect of Washington’s counsel.

  5. Civic Virtue and Knowledge: Washington’s plea for an educated and virtuous citizenry resonates strongly in our age of information. He recognized that a functioning democracy relies on an informed and virtuous electorate. In an era marked by information overload, misinformation, and declining trust in institutions, the call for civic virtue and knowledge strikes a chord. It challenges us to examine the state of our education system and the role of media in shaping public opinion.

In these ways, George Washington’s Farewell Address serves as a timeless guidepost for evaluating the state of our government and society. Its relevance endures, offering profound insights into the challenges we face and the principles that can guide us toward a more perfect union. As we confront the complex issues of our time, we would do well to heed the words of this founding figure, drawing inspiration from his vision for a united, virtuous, and self-governing nation.


In the pages of George Washington’s Farewell Address, we find not just a historical artifact, but a living testament to the enduring wisdom of a Founding Father. As constitutional originalists, we are compelled to recognize the timelessness of Washington’s insights and the striking parallels between his warnings and the challenges we face in our modern government.

His caution against the divisive influence of political parties, his plea for national unity, his aversion to foreign entanglements, his emphasis on morality and religion, and his call for civic virtue and knowledge—all resonate deeply with the issues of our time.

As we conclude this exploration of Washington’s wisdom, we are left with a profound appreciation for the foundations upon which this nation was built. The Farewell Address serves as a compass guiding us through the turbulent seas of contemporary politics. It beckons us to reflect on our responsibilities as citizens, the role of leadership in preserving our democratic institutions, and the imperatives of unity and virtue in the face of adversity.

The relevance of Washington’s wisdom is not limited to any one era but extends to every generation tasked with the stewardship of the American experiment. It is a reminder that the principles upon which this nation was founded—unity, freedom, justice, and the pursuit of the common good—are enduring and universal.

In closing, we are presented with a choice. We can ignore the echoes of the past and allow history to become a forgotten whisper, or we can heed the counsel of a visionary leader and apply it to the challenges of today. George Washington’s Farewell Address stands as a clarion call for responsible governance, civic virtue, and the preservation of the American spirit. It is a challenge and an opportunity—a testament to our ability, as citizens and leaders, to shape the destiny of this great nation for generations to come. The choice, ultimately, is ours to make, guided by the enduring wisdom of our nation’s first president.

23 views0 comments


bottom of page